Artificial Surface


Spatial Pattern

The total artificial surface area is less than

1%

of earth’s land surface bout reside the 7 billion people.

The Urban and rural construction land[1] is 1.18 million km2 in 2010, which is as large as the South Africa or the Inner Mongolia in China.

The Urban and rural construction land

The Urban and rural construction land is 1.18 million km2 in 2010, which is as large as the South Africa or the Inner Mongolia in China.

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According to statistics by continents, the artificial surface area of each continent over the past ten years from high to low are Asia, North America, Africa, South America, and Oceania. The artificial surface area in Europe accounts for just 27% of global artificial surface area. The artificial surface area in China and America account for about 1/3.

Artificial Surface


Spatial-Temporal Change

the global artificial surface area has increased by 57400 km2, i.e.

5.08%

China and the United States have contributed 28.2% and 20.5% respectively, both together is almost half of the global total increase, such as the Yangtze River delta and Las Vegas.

About 50% of the increased artificial surface areas comes from the arable lands. Newly-added construction land are from farmland (50.26%), grassland (20.01%), Shrub land (6.81%), Bare land (5.13%), Wetland(1.69%) and water (1.64%).

Artificial Surface


Use Efficiency

Use efficiency of urban and rural construction land varies greatly in different areas:

  • The per capita urban and rural construction land area varies greatly in the world. In terms of per capita urban and rural construction land area, developed countries in Europe and North America are over 5 times higher than developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

  • The per capita GDP is dollar$ 52 mn/km2 in 2010. The GDP in developed countries are generally higher dollar$ 60 mn/km2, while it is lower than dollar$ 35 mn/km2 in less developed countries.

Artificial Surface


Urban Artificial Surface

The ratio of urban artificial surface areas to the total artificial surface areas in the world is about

40%

The largest urban artificial surface area is the United States, following by China, Russia, Japan and Indian. The urban artificial surface of the United States and China had been expanded greatly since 2000 and the expanded urban artificial surface areas of these two countries counted 60% of the total expanded urban artificial surface areas in the world.

The urban artificial surface in developing countries had been expanded greatly since 2000 and the expansion intensity of urban in developing countries (16.70%) is 3 times more than that in developed countries (5.33%).

The expansion intensity of urban in China is the largest, especially in the south-east coast regions of China.

Artificial Surface


Rural Artificial Surface

The rural artificial surface area counted

60%

of the total artificial surface area in the world (2010). The sum of the rural artificial surface areas in the United States and China was 30% of the total rural artificial surface area in the world.

The increased rural artificial surface areas in the United States and China counted

40%

of the total increased rural artificial surface areas in the world from 2000 to 2010.